In this study, two thermal-tolerant mutants of Chlorella sp. MT-7 and MT-15, were isolated. In indoor cultivation, specific growth rate (micro, d(-1)) of the mutants were 1.4 to 1.8-fold at 25 degrees Celsius and 3.3 to 6.7-fold at 40 degrees Celsius higher than those of wild type. The carbon dioxide fixation rate of both microalgal mutants was also significantly higher than that of wild type. In outdoor closed cultivation, where the temperature of culture broth was 41 + or - 1 degrees Celsius, the micro of mutant strain MT-15 was 0.238 d(-1) during an 8-day cultivation. Whereas, the growth of wild type was inhibited in the outdoor cultivation. Our results show that the isolated microalgal strains are adaptable to be applied in outdoor cultivation in subtropical zones.
It is well documented that the combination of low nitrogen and phosphorus resources can lead to situations where colimitation of phytoplankton growth arises, yet the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we propose a Droop-based model built on the idea that colimitation by nitrogen and phosphorus arises from the uptake of nitrogen. Indeed, since N-porters are active systems, they require energy that could be related to the phosphorus status of the cell. Therefore, we assumed that N uptake is enhanced by the P quota. Our model also accounts for the biological observations that uptake of a nutrient can be down-regulated by its own internal quota, and succeeds in describing the strong contrast for the non-limiting quotas under N-limited and P-limited conditions that was observed on continuous cultures with Selenastrum minutum and with Isochrysis affinis galbana. Our analysis suggests that, regarding the colimitation concept, N and P would be better considered as biochemically dependent rather than biochemically independent nutrients
Microalgal oil is a potential energy source because it can be easily converted to fatty acid methyl ester or hydrocarbon type of diesel, and it is produced with relatively higher productivity compared with oil from plants and animals. Heterotrophic growth of microalgae is superior due to its high final product concentration; however, the cost of the raw materials is unacceptable if sugar is utilized as the carbon source. The aim of this study is to optimize the lipid accumulation of Chlorella protothecoides by using carbon sources other than glucose in heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultures. Different factors such as different carbon sources, carbon to nitrogen ratio, initial pH level, salinity, and rotational speed are studied in affecting the cell growth and the oil accumulation. Our experiments revealed that the heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultures of C. protothecoides grew better than autotrophic cultures. C. protothecoides can grow on glycerol or acetate, as well as on glucose. Several stress factors were confirmed or discovered to significantly increase the lipid content of microalgae cells. The replacement of glycerol and acetate as carbon sources for microalgae cultivations provides potential for waste utilization: glycerol from biodiesel industry and acetate from biohydrogen production.
Les micro-algues sont à la mode, que ce soit pour les biocarburants ou les applications à forte valeur ajoutée. Mais la production industrielle n’est guère au rendez-vous en Europe. Car avant de s’en servir, il faut bien les faire pousser, ces algues, et de façon efficace et productive.
Une équipe du Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), en collaboration avec l'Organisation pour le Développement des Energies Nouvelles et des Technologies Industrielles (NEDO), a élaboré un nouveau procédé permettant de fabriquer du "pétrole brut vert" à partir d'algues microscopiques. L'emploi de diméthyl éther (DME) dans le processus d'extraction des huiles permettrait de substantielles économies d'énergies par rapport à un procédé classique
Réunis à l'Ambassade de Grande-Bretagne à Paris, le 25 (=20) mai dernier, les acteurs du monde des microalgues ont débattu des perspectives industrielles en matière de production bioénergétique et biochimique. Au moment où les biocarburants de première génération sont sujet à polémique, la culture des microalgues pour la production d’énergie suscite un engouement mais aussi des questions en terme d’applications industrielles.
The protein content of dry biomass of the microalgae Porphyridium cruentum, Scenedesmus almeriensis, and Muriellopsis sp. and of the cyanobacteria Synechocystis aquatilis and Arthrospira platensis was measured by the Lowry method following disruption of the cells by milling with inert ceramic particles. The measurements were compared with the Kjeldahl method and by elemental analysis. The nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors for biomass obtained from exponentially growing cells with a steady state doubling time of approximately 23h were 5.95 for nitrogen measured by Kjeldahl and 4.44 for total nitrogen measured by elemental analysis. The protein content in dry biomass ranged from 30% to 55%. The above conversion factors are useful for estimating the protein content of microalgal biomass produced in rapid steady state growth as encountered in many commercial production processes.
Unicellular microalgae generally grow in the presence of bacteria, particularly when they are farmed massively. This study analyzes the bacteria associated with mass culture of Botryococcus braunii: both the planktonic bacteria in the water column and those forming biofilms adhered to the surface of the microalgal cells ( approximately 10(7)-10(8) culturable cells per gram microalgae). Furthermore, we identified the culturable bacteria forming a biofilm in the microalgal cells by 16S rDNA sequencing. At least eight different culturable species of bacteria were detected in the biofilm and were evaluated for the presence of quorum-sensing signals in these bacteria. Few studies have considered the implications of this phenomenon as regards the interaction between bacteria and microalgae. Production of C4-AHL and C6-AHL were detected in two species, Pseudomonas sp. and Rhizobium sp., which are present in the bacterial biofilm associated with B. braunii. This type of signal was not detected in the planktonic bacteria isolated from the water. We also noted that the bacterium, Rhizobium sp., acted as a probiotic bacterium and significantly encouraged the growth of B. braunii. A direct application of these beneficial bacteria associated with B. braunii could be, to use them like inoculants for large-scale microalgal cultures. They could optimize biomass production by enhancing growth, particularly in this microalga that has a low growth rate.
A mid-infrared spectroscopic method was developed for the simultaneous and quantitative determination of total protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents of microalgal cells. Based on a chemometric approach, measured FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectra from algal cells were reconstructed by a partial least square algorithm, using the spectra of the reference substances to determine their relative contribution to the overall cell spectrum. From this specific absorption, absolute macromolecular cell composition [pg cell(-1)] can be calculated using calibration curves, which have been validated by independent biochemical methods. The future potential of this method for photosynthesis research is shown by its application to follow time-resolved changes in the cellular composition of microalgae during an illumination period of several hours. We show how the macromolecular composition can be investigated by FTIR spectroscopy methods. This can substantially increase the efficiency of screening processes like bioreactor monitoring and may be beneficial in metabolic engineering of algal cells.
Biomass and lipid productivity, lipid content and quantitative and qualitative lipid composition are critical parameters in selecting microalgal species for commercial scale-up production. This study compares lipid content and composition, and lipid and biomass productivity during logarithmic, late logarithmic and stationary phase of Nannochloropsis sp., Isochrysis sp., Tetraselmis sp. and Rhodomonas sp. grown in L1-, f/2- and K-medium. Of the tested species, Tetraselmis sp. exhibited a lipid productivity of 3.9 to 4.8 g m(-2) day(-1) in any media type, with comparable lipid productivity by Nannochloropsis sp. and Isochrysis sp. when grown in L1-medium. The dry biomass productivity of Tetraselmis sp. (33.1 to 45.0 g m(-2) day(-1)) exceeded that of the other species by a factor 2 to 10. Of the organisms studied, Tetraselmis sp. had the best dry biomass and/or lipid production profile in large-scale cultures. The present study provides a practical bench mark which allows comparison of microalgal production systems with different footprints, as well as terrestrial systems.
Le secteur maritime a donné naissance ces dernières années à des dizaines de centres de recherche et de petites entreprises à Rimouski et dans la région. La Technopole maritime du Québec (TMQ) qui célèbre ses 10 ans a contribué largement à cet essor.
Scenedesmus almeriensis is a fast-growing highly productive new strain and is also a good producer of lutein.
The aim of this study was to determine the influences of pressure and temperature on the supercritical fluid extraction of lutein and β-carotene from a freeze-dried powder of the marine microalga, Scenedesmus almeriensis. The operating conditions were as follows: pressure in the range 200 to 600 bar and temperatures between 32 and 60 °C. The extracts were analysed by HPLC. Empirical correlations were also developed.
The results demonstrate that it is necessary to work at a pressure of 400 bar and a temperature of 60 °C to obtain a significant yield in the extraction of pigments. In comparison with the reference extraction process used, the results show that better yields are obtained in the extraction of β-carotene; it is possible to extract 50% of the total of this pigment contained in the microalga studied.
BACKGROUND: Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of beta-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. RESULTS: The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with ~60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA) sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: ~1.5 and ~0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the development of a viable plastid transformation system for this model alga, and they will complement the forthcoming D. salina nuclear genome sequence, placing D. salina in a group of a select few photosynthetic eukaryotes for which complete genome sequences from all three genetic compartments are available.
The effect of various protease and carbohydrase treatments on the extraction of polyphenols and other antioxidant ingredients from the red algae Palmaria palmata (dulse) was investigated. In addition, the relative contribution of different fractions to the overall antioxidant capacity of the hydrolysate was evaluated. Considerable differences were observed both in total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferrous ion-chelating ability assays. All the proteases tested had significant enhancing effect on the extraction of polyphenols and other active components compared to carbohydrases and cold water extraction (control). The Umamizyme extract had the highest TPC and consequently exhibited the strongest scavenging capacity against DPPH and peroxyl radicals. Further fractionation of the Umamizyme extract revealed that the crude polyphenol fraction possessed the highest peroxyl radical scavenging activity, whereas the crude polysaccharide fraction was more effective for chelating ferrous ions. The data from this study suggest the potential of protease treatment to improve value-added utilization of dulse extracts as antioxidants in functional foods and nutraceuticals.
Contamination in coastal zones is an increasing problem that adversely affects biological diversity and the functioning of coastal ecosystems. Sediment is an important compartment of these zones since large quantities of diverse contaminants can accumulate there. Whole-sediment toxicity assays are of increasing importance, and several assay methods using mainly invertebrates have been developed. However, an important part of the benthic community, the microphytobenthos (represented principally by benthic diatoms and cyanobacteria), has surprisingly been neglected. Recently, comprehensive studies have been conducted using benthic marine microalgae with the object of establishing a toxicity assay method for sediment samples. The main results published to date in the literature and obtained by our own team have been compiled and are discussed in this review. The value and feasibility of using certain organisms of the microphytobenthos group in ecotoxicology studies are also discussed, and a sediment quality guideline based on multivariate procedure has been derived from data obtained in previous studies. Finally, future perspectives for research in this field are discussed.
Microalgae can be cultured in photobioreactors to sequester carbon dioxide and produce potentially valuable biomaterials. The goal of the present study was to identify and utilize microalgal strains that are capable of tolerating up to 20% CO2 (gas phase) concentrations under variable light or flue-gas blend conditions and reactor configurations to produce biomass. Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp., both cultured from a Sonoran desert mineral spring, grew well and tolerated exposure to a gas mixture containing up to 20% CO2 applied continuously in batch reactors to the culture. Experiments were conducted with simulated coal-powered acidic flue gases containing SOx/NOx at concentrations of 200 to 350 ppmV. Microalgae did not grow well without pH control, and high levels (>250 mM) of nitrite or sulphite in the liquid media inhibited algal growth. Pseudo steady-state experiments were also conducted using helical tubular and flat-plate photobioreactors with continuous flow (water and gas) and with artificial or natural sunlight. With a 2 d hydraulic residence time (HRT), the helical tubular photobioreactor produced 0.50 +/- 0.11 g C d(-1) (0.056 +/- 0.012 g C L(-1) d(-1)) dry-weight cell mass during continuous fluorescent-lamp irradiance and 0.048 +/- 0.018 g C L(-1) d(-1) during 12 h light/darkness cycling. The flat-plate photobioreactor (2 d HRT) produced 0.42 +/- 0.28 g C L(-1) d(-1) with artificial lighting and with natural sunlight; a 4 d HRT produced 0.14 +/- 0.02 g C L(-1) d(-1). Reactor modelling indicated that a threshold of reactor size (i.e., HRT) an d reactor depth (path-length of light) exists based upon the optical density of the cells in the water column and their growth rates.
A promising alternative to petroleum-derived fuels lies in microalgae-produced biodiesel. Compared to major terrestrial crops, microalgae have higher rates of oil and biomass production and appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that can meet global demand for transport fuels. Chlorella vulgaris may be suitable for biodiesel production due to its faster growth and easier cultivation compared to other strains. Lipid production is achieved in two steps: a biomass production phase, and a lipid production phase, in which the lipid content of algal cells is increased by submitting them to environmental stress such as nitrogen starvation. As a preliminary step towards the optimization of the biomass production step, the effect of different nutrient concentrations in TAP medium on the photobioreactor cultivation of C. vulgaris was studied. The results showed good growth of Chlorella vulgaris in 2X TAP, reaching a biomass concentration of 6.0 g/liter. Growth inhibition was observed at concentrations of the nitrogen source, NH4Cl, between 500 and 1000 mg/liter in the medium. Varying the concentration of the phosphorus source, K2HPO4 in the medium had no effect on cell growth within the range studied, provided phosphorus sufficiency is ensured. Other medium components are non-limiting at the levels studied.
Chlorella vulgaris is a green microalga that contains various antioxidants, such as carotenoids and chlorophylls. In this study, antioxidants from C. vulgaris were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), which has been recently used for bioactive compound extraction. The antioxidant capacity of individual compounds in chlorella was determined by online HPLC ABTS•+ analysis. According to the antioxidant analysis of total extracts, the extraction yield, radical scavenging activity, and phenolic compounds using PLE were relatively high compared to those obtained using maceration or ultrasound-assisted extraction. On the basis of online HPLC ABTS•+ analysis, the 15 major antioxidants from chlorella extracts were identified as hydrophilic compounds, lutein and its isomers, chlorophylls, and chlorophyll derivatives. Using PLE at high temperature (85−160 °C) significantly increased antioxidant extraction from chlorella, improving the formation of hydrophilic compounds and yielding more antioxidative chlorophyll derivatives. Online HPLC ABTS•+ analysis was a useful tool for the separation of main antioxidants from PLE extracts and allowed the simultaneous measurement of their antioxidant capacity, which clearly showed that PLE is an excellent method for extracting antioxidants from C. vulgaris.